Table 3. Individual bridges and barriers to integrated interdisciplinary research.

Barriers Codes Bridges

Preference for “traditional” disciplinary work Risk taking Willingness to try something new and push disciplinary boundaries
Rigid adherence to individual disciplinary project Flexibility Willingness to adjust disciplinary focus to make team project work
Focused on disciplinary mechanics Common vision Focus on resolving research problem from holistic perspective
Lack of creativity; focus on disciplinary “depth” as an indicator of rigor Creativity Creatively designing a project that is integrated and rigorously meets both “depth” and “breadth” criteria
Not willing/able to think in terms of other disciplines Cross-disciplinary thinking Ability to think holistically, make connections

Team projects as secondary, separate project Commitment Dedicated to integrated project as an equal or greater priority to disciplinary work
Not meeting self-imposed deadlines Professionalism/ accountability Meeting commitments and deadlines
Focus on individual timeline, not adaptable Patience Adherence to team-created timelines, but adaptable
Problem solving

Avoidance, “problems will go away if ignored” attitude Conflict resolution Active communication to resolve/overcome barriers
Infrequent, distant, disorganized, simplistic updates Communication strategy Frequent, personal, dependable, in-depth, professional
Little experience working in teams and across disciplines Experience Lots of experience working in teams and across disciplines