Fig. 3. a) Forest Management District 19A (Labrador, Canada) straddles a major ecotone between boreal (closed canopy) and taiga (open canopy) systems, and serves as the test case for our toolkit approach. b) The socioecological conservation network outlined in the 20-year forest plan accounts for both ecological and cultural reserves, as well as connecting corridors. Fine-scale forest retention is also planned as estimated here.