Fig. 2. Correlations between (A) the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) and the Corruption Perception Index (CPI), (B) the Ecological Footprint (EF) and CPI, (C) ESI and residual CPI, and (D) EF and residual CPI. Residual CPI represents corruption levels after the removal of the confounding influence of the per capita gross domestic product (GDP). High values of CPI and residual CPI indicate low corruption; high values of ESI indicate high sustainability; high values of EF indicate low sustainability. The per capita GDP, CPI, and ESI data are for 2002, and the EF data are for 2000.