Table 2. Ecologically adapted management practices and social mechanisms for resilience and sustainability (adopted from Folke et al. 1998a).


Management practices based on
ecological knowledge
Monitoring resource abundance and change in ecosystems
Total protection of certain species
Protection of vulnerable life-history stages
Protection of specific habitats
Temporal restrictions of harvest
Multiple species management; maintaining ecosystem structure and function
Resource rotation
Succession management
Management of landscape patchiness
Watershed management
Managing ecological processes at multiple scales
Responding to and managing pulses and surprises
Nurturing sources of renewal
Social mechanisms behind
management practices
Generation, accumulation and transmission of ecological knowledge
     Reinterpreting signals for learning
     Revival of local knowledge
     Folklore/knowledge carriers
     Integration of knowledge
     Intergenerational transmission of knowledge
     Geographical transfer of knowledge
Structure and dynamics of institutions
     Role of stewards/wise people
     Cross-scale institutions
     Community assessments
     Taboos and regulations
     Social and religious sanctions
     Coping mechanisms; short-term responses to surprises
     Ability to reorganize under changing circumstances
     Incipient institutions
Mechanisms for cultural internalization
     Rituals, ceremonies, and other traditions
     Cultural frameworks for resource management
World view and cultural values
     Appropriate environmental ethics
     Sharing, generosity, reciprocity, redistribution, respect,
     patience, humility