Table A-1. Objectives of a selection of international conservation and development agencies showing the extent to which the rhetoric of integrated conservation development has been adopted.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
To ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival
Nature Conservancy
To preserve the plants, animals, and natural communities that represent the diversity of life on Earth by protecting the lands and waters they need to survive
Flora and Fauna International
To protect the entire spectrum of endangered plant and animal species on the planet

A balance between conservation and development
Conservation International
To conserve the Earth’s living natural heritage and global biodiversity, and to demonstrate that human societies are able to live harmoniously with nature
Global Environment Facility
To achieve agreed-upon global environmental benefits in areas such as biological diversity; climate change; international waters; land degradation, primarily desertification and deforestation; ozone layer depletion; and persistent organic pollutants
To influence, encourage, and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable
Wildlife Conservation Society
To save wildlife and wild lands, change attitudes toward nature, and help people imagine wildlife and humans living in sustainable interaction on both a local and a global scale
Naturschutzbund Deutschland
To protect biological diversity and ensure that future generations can live on a planet with a wider diversity of species and habitats as well as clean air and water, healthy soil, and as many nonrenewable resources as possible
Friends of the Earth International (FOEI)
To create a peaceful and sustainable world based on societies living in harmony with nature and ensure social, economic, gender, and environmental justice free from all forms of domination and exploitation
BirdLife International
To help, through birds, to conserve biodiversity andimprove the quality of people's lives; to integrate bird conservation into sustaining people's livelihoods
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)
To stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature
WorldFish Centre
To enhance the well-being of present and future generations of poor people in the developing world through improved production, management, and conservation of living aquatic resources
World Agroforestry Center
To work toward mitigating tropical deforestation, land depletion, and rural poverty through improved agroforestry systems
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IGPRI)
To advance the conservation and use of genetic diversity for the well-being of present and future generations
Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD)
To combat poverty and contribute to lasting improvements in living standards and quality of life; to promote peace, democracy, and human rights and the responsible management and use of the global environment and biological diversity
International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
To improve water and land resources management for food livelihoods and nature
International Centre for Underutilised Crops (ICUC)
To reduce poverty and suffering through the improvement and promotion of underutilized crops for food, medicines, fodder, and industrial needs, and also for environmental protection
Center for International Cooperation in Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD)
To contribute to rural development in tropical and subtropical countries in the fields of agriculture, forestry, and agrifoods, including environmental issues and natural resource management
To improve forest management for the benefit of people, conservation, and sustainable development
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
To conserve forests and improve the livelihoods of people in the tropics; to help local communities and small farmers gain their rightful share of forest resources while increasing the production and value of forest products
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
To improve the well-being of present and future generations of rice farmers and consumers, particularly those with low incomes; to generate and disseminate rice-related knowledge and technology of short- and long-term environmental, social, and economic benefit
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
To enhance the food security, income, and well-being of resource-poor people in sub-Saharan Africa; to increase agricultural production, improve food systems, and sustainably manage natural resources
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
To improve food security and nutrition, with an emphasis on low-income countries and poor people and on the sound management of the natural resources base that supports agriculture
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)
To conduct socially and environmentally progressive research aimed at reducing hunger and poverty and preserving natural resources in developing countries
Africa Rice Center (WARDA)
To contribute to poverty alleviation and food security and to increase the productivity and profitability of the rice sector in ways that ensure the sustainability of the farming environment
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)
To improve sustainable agricultural production in developing countries
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT)
To serve the poor in developing countries; to increase food security, improve the productivity and profitability of farming systems, and sustain natural resources
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)
To improve the welfare of poor people and alleviate poverty through research and training in dry areas of the developing world, by increasing the production, productivity, and nutritional quality of food while preserving and enhancing the natural resource base
Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP)
To reduce poverty and achieve food security on a sustained basis in developing countries by improved management of natural resources in the Andes and other mountain areas
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
To serve the poorest of the poor in the semi-arid areas of the developing world and to give a human face to the science and agricultural research that we do with our partners
Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)
To achieve sustainable food security and reduce poverty in developing countries in the fields of agriculture, livestock, forestry, policy, and natural resources management

Economic development
International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
To solve critical development problems
Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID)
To advance Australia’s national interest by helping developing countries reduce poverty and achieve sustainable development
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
To improve agricultural systems in which livestock are important
Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)
To develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and rural development
UK Department of International Development
To combat the spread of HIV and AIDS in Africa, promote poverty reduction programs, reduce debt, boost access to markets, and support peace processes
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
To enable the rural poor to overcome poverty
International Development Association (IDA)
To promote economic development, increase productivity, and thus raise standards of living in the less-developed areas of the world
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
To encourage long-term and equitable economic growth and advance U.S. foreign policy objectives by supporting economic growth, agriculture, and trade; global health; and democracy, conflict prevention, and humanitarian assistance