Table 3. Key factors hindering social learning.

Factor Total score for significance† Total number of case studies in which the factor was an issue
Lack of clarity about role of stakeholder involvement, e.g., form, timing, and aims 14 8
Stakeholders’ lack of resources 13 6
Lack of adequate time and resources for the process 13 6
Lack of stakeholders’ belief that their inputs would make a difference 13 6
Lack of clarity of the status and aims of the initiative 12 5
Failure to include all stakeholders 9 6
Difficulties in moving to a multiparty approach because of a reluctance to change the governance structure 9 4
Differences in the scale of the project and scale of interest of the stakeholders 9 3
Omission of important aspects, e.g., costs 7 4
Overly technical language 7 3
Contradictory expectations of the way stakeholders want to be involved 6 4
Lack of rules of representation 6 4
Lack of clear and usable feedback on outcomes 6 4
Lack of continuity, e.g., no transfer of knowledge among different representatives of the same stakeholder organization 6 3
Controversy concerning the legal authority over the area under study 5 3
Overly lengthy procedures 5 3
Lack of opportunities for direct interaction and exchange among stakeholders, e.g., too few, too far apart 5 3
Fear of loss of confidentiality 5 3
Fear of stakeholder involvement 5 2
Inadequate governance structure 4 3
Administrative procedures restricting the process 4 3
No relationship between stakeholders and technical teams 4 2
Complex and inadequate information and communication tools 4 2
Lack of openness, e.g., minutes not made available 4 2
Partial framing of the problems by the convener, i.e., ideas already preformed 4 2
Lack of process orientation of the stakeholders 4 2
Pre-existing distribution of water rights 4 2
Leading institute defends its own interests 4 2

†Maximum score of 30; see Methodology for scoring methods.