Table 1. Examples of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) used in conservation planning below the species level.

Species examples
TEK below the species level
Conservation implication

Caribou (Rangifer tarandus)
Historical abundance and spatial distribution of the population from southern Baffin Island, Canada
Wildlife management: migration patterns and harvest trends
Ferguson & Messier (1997)
Bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)
Abundance and migration patterns along the north coast of Alaska, USA.
Wildlife management and harvest trends
Huntington (2000)
Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi)
Important nursery areas and juvenile distributions in Prince William Sound, Alaska, U.S.A.
Restoration of oil spill impacted populations
Huntington (2000)
Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas)
Knowledge of over-wintering habitat of a population based on interactions with a particular algae, Mexico
Ecological interactions relating to population distinction
Nabhan (2000)
Bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum)
Ontogenetic and associated habitat shifts in a population in the Solomon Islands
Protection of critical habitat at different life history stages
Aswani and Hamilton (2004)
Bonefish (Albula spp.)
Historical trends in abundance, knowledge of inshore habitats and of susceptibility to different harvesting techniques for populations, Kiribati
Protection of remaining populations from overfishing and habitat destruction
Johannes and Yeeting (2001)
Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)
Differences in overwintering and spawning behavior between populations in Newfoundland, Canada
Population discrimination at a local geographic scale
Neis et al. (1999)
Brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis)
Migration patterns between breeding and feeding areas of different populations; descriptions of breeding areas
Conservation of different populations at different life history stages
Fine-scale conservation efforts
This study
Brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis)
Harvest trends across multiple populations
Trends in population abundance from 40 yr ago to the present
This study
Brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) Schooling behaviour in feeding areas and fishing practices Maintenance of genetic diversity within populations at small geographic scales This study