Table 1. Characteristics of three forested regions in which the management of natural resources is being approached in an integrated way, and which illustrate the need for a coordinated and systematic approach exemplified by the integrated natural resource management guidelines.

Feature Malinau Tri-National de la Sangha Reserva Extrativista
Verde para Sempre
Location 2º45′–3º21′N,
Area 2500 km² 36,236 km² 12,887 km²
Vegetation Lowland evergreen broadleaf rain forest, upper montane forest, secondary forest Primary and secondary mixed species terra firma tropical semi-evergreen rain forest, monodominant (Gibertiodendron) closed canopy forest, riparian and swamp forest Seasonally flooded forest (várzea), closed mixed forest
Physical features 50–2000 m elevation
Rugged topography
300–600 m elevation
Flat topography
Poor soils
15–100 m elevation
Flat topography intersected by numerous rivers
Population 40,000 (estimate for Malinau District) Estimated 0.7 person/km² 13,300 people in rural settlements
Settlement Scattered settlements
One medium-sized town
Scattered small villages of 50–100 inhabitants, but people increasingly concentrated around logging towns, i.e., 4500–15,000 inhabitants Small settlements along rivers
One medium-sized town
Land use Large- to medium-scale industrial logging
Coal mining
Swidden agriculture
Nontimber forest product (NTFP) extraction, i.e., rattan, eaglewood, bird nests, resin, and fuelwood
Largescale industrial logging
Artisanal alluvial diamond mining
Sport hunting
Swidden agriculture
Hunting, fishing, and gathering NTFPs
Largely illegal commercial logging
Hunting and fishing
Swidden agriculture
Harvesting NTFPs, e.g., fruits, nuts, medicinal plants
Environmental concerns Deforestation from industrial logging
Sustainability of timber extraction
Siltation of rivers
Loss of biodiversity
Industrial logging
Commercial hunting
Unsustainable local hunting
Diamond mining
Industrial waste from wood treatment
Illegal logging
Loss of primary forest habitat
Socioeconomic concerns Few benefits reaching local inhabitants
Human health and nutrition
High in-migration
Social and economic deprivation
Illegal land appropriation