Fig. 11. Energy intensity changes over time for China, India, Japan, and the USA. Data are converted from domestic currencies using market exchange rates. GDP stands for gross domestic product, mer for market exchange rate. Source: Nakicenovic et al. (1998). From "Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Scenarios, Volume 2" by Steve R. Carpenter, et al., eds. Copyright (c) 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Reproduced by permission of Island Press, Washington, D.C.