Table 2. Environmental indicators.

Target species population level
  • Changes in population size
  • Changes in distribution, i.e., range
  • Changes in population structure, e.g., sex and age ratio
Land-use ecosystem level
  • Changes in forest species diversity
  • Changes in soil structure
  • Changes in soil pollution levels
Regional landscape level
  • Role as a reservoir of forest species
  • Role as a biodiversity corridor
  • Role in erosion control and hydrology
  • Role in pollution