Fig. 3. Coffee-growing area and deforestation scenarios. Comparison of (A) 100-ha and (B) 22-ha forest remnants; the surrounding circular areas indicate increasing distances to the central forest area (the width of one ring is 100 m). The figure is drawn to scale. We calculated the effect of forest distance on agroforestry systems situated within these rings (100–400-m distances). The extent of gray shading reflects the decline in pollination services; white areas indicate the replacement of forest by alternative cropping.