Table 1. Some examples of poorly integrated extrinsic and intrinsic background conditions grouped by their influence on the relationship between management objectives and outcomes. Conditions are not necessarily independent. CCU stands for commercial consumptive use (sensu Freese 1998), RHT for resource and habitat taboos (sensu Colding and Folke 2001), and TEK for traditional ecological knowledge.

Extrinsic Relevant examples and case studies
Spiking catastrophes
Earthquake location, magnitude, and frequency Garwood et al. 1979
Spatial variation in volcanic activity and behavior Hammond 2005d
Trends in cyclonic activity Webb 1958, Wadsworth 1959, Whitmore 1974, Nelson et al. 1994, Snook 1996
Extent and frequency of flooding Salo et al. 1986, Hammond 2005d
Depth and frequency of drought Salafsky 1994, Glantz 1998
Primarily landscape legacies
Age of geologic terrane Hammond 2005d
Type, distribution, and grade of subsurface resources Miranda et al. 1998, Peterson and Heemskerk 2001, Hilson 2002, Hammond 2005c
Type, duration, and extent of forest-use history Dargavel et al. 1988, Homma 1992, Coomes 1995, Barham and Coomes 1996, van Gemerden et al. 2003, Hammond 2005c
Hydrological processes and water quality Degens 1982, Milliman and Meade 1983, Marengo 1995, Aalto et al. 2003
Spiking catastrophes
Frequency and extent of violent conflict Draulans and van Krunkelsven 2002, Dudley et al. 2002, McNeely 2003, Price 2003
Frequency and magnitude of famine Currey and Hugo 1984
Swelling transitions
Fire susceptibility Fearnside 1990, Kauffman and Uhl 1990, Hammond and Ter Steege 1998, Murty et al. 2000, Siegert et al. 2001
Disease transmission rates and extent Patz et al. 2004, Karesh et al. 2005
CCU species decline Peña and Zuidema 1999, Bennett and Gumal 2001, Fimbel et al. 2001, Peres et al. 2003
Non-CCU biodiversity decline Laurance and Bierregaard 1997
Accelerated greenhouse warming Brown et al. 1993, Condit et al. 1996, Nemani et al. 2003
Invasive species distribution and density Sheil 1994, Cochrane and Schulze 1999, Fine 2002
Primarily social legacies
Education and training quality and opportunity Hammond et al. 2000
Skilled labour migration Adams 2003, Özden and Schiff 2006
Political system structures and platforms Fearnside and Barbosa 1996
RHTs and TEK retention Berkes et al. 2000, Colding and Folke 2001
Corruption Robbins 2000
Primarily economic legacies
Monetary policies Eichengreen and Kenen 1994
Global trade structures and conditions Barbier et al. 1994
Land use policies Hecht 1985, Repetto and Gillis 1988, Cockburn et al. 1999, Lambin et al. 2001, Rudel 2005
Land tenure Godoy et al. 2001
Enforcement & monitoring capability Rodan et al. 1992, Smith 2002, Karsenty 2003