Fig. 4. Relative change in provision of ecosystem services (ES) in the four scenarios. Red polygons (“stars”) indicate the state of each ES at the end of the scenario storyline relative to a starting point of zero (indicated by green stars). A positive value (between 0 and 1) indicates an increase in the supply of a particular ES. A negative value (between 0 and -1) indicates a decrease in supply. Therefore, as the red stars are bigger, the overall supply of ES increases, but as they decrease, the overall supply of ES decreases (Excerpted from Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Scenarios, Volume 2. Copyright © 2005 by the author. Reproduced by permission of Island Press, Washington, D.C.).