Table 2. Comparison of some key organizations and their institutional relationships in a selected set of case studies.

(date established)
Upward accountability
Downward accountability
Key sources of expertise
Goulburn-Broken Catchment Management Authority (1997)
Natural resource management
Board of Directors appointed by Minister for Environment and Water in the Victoria State Government
Through three subcatchment committees, each with eight community representatives, and indirectly through stakeholder projects
CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems
Ecomuseum Kristianstads Vattenrike (1989)
Environmental and cultural aspects of catchment management
Municipality of Kristianstad
Issues networks and co-management relationships with stakeholder groups
Knowledgeable local stewards and associations
Lund, Kristianstad, and Stockholm Universities; WWF Sweden; Museum of National History
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (1975)
Management of the park for multiple uses
Australian Government,
World Heritage Commission
GBR Consultative Committee,
10 local marine advisory committees,
high public interest
Reef Cooperative Research Centre, James Cook University, the Australian Institute of Marine Science, the University of Queensland, and Australian National University
South Florida Water Management District (1972)
Operation of canals and levees, restoration of ecosystems, and disaster management
Federal agencies,
governing board,
Florida legislature
Mass media, user groups, and the public monitor performance closely
Many universities, federal and state agencies, consulting firms, and NGOs
Chisabisi Cree Trappers Associations (1985)
Management of caribou hunt
Governing board under James Bay Agreement,
Hunters, caribou
Traditional knowledge of elders and younger hunters