Fig. 4. Postulated changes in levels of social, human, physical, financial, and natural capital during the history of the Aboriginal social-ecological system. The years before and after release (Ω) and reorganization (α) are shown. The first Ω occurred after the spread of diseases and the pastoral invasion starting in1800. The first α phase began after the gold rush in 1850. The second Ω in 1940 was caused by the closer settlement policy and triggered by the drought and depression of the preceding decade. The level of natural capital refers only to that natural capital accessible to Aboriginal peoples at a particular time. Levels of capital are represented relative to the maximum level reached during the period of history we analyze. Levels of capital can be compared within but not between categories of capital. The lines joining the time axes represent the trend between years correctly, but they do not track fluctuations. These levels are based on our opinions and interpretations of history.