Table 1. Example of three different types of stakeholder processes. The nature of the processes influence social learning.

Type of process
Who is involved
Lead of process
Possible outcomes of process
Regional forums
Representative from stakeholder groups in which choice is hardly ever based on sound analysis
Water management authority
Binding recommendations on management plans, voluntary action to be included in management plans
Stakeholder platforms in action research
Representative from stakeholder groups with choice based on institutional analysis
Scientific project–external facilitation
Recommendations to be fed into formal process, formal institutional setting to realize agreed agenda for action
Stakeholder process
Individuals and representatives from stakeholder groups
Bottom up without formal lead, often individual leaders emerging
Implemented action at local scale, increased awareness and start of formal policy process