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Indicators for wild animal offtake: methods and case study for African mammals and birds

Daniel J. Ingram, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex
Lauren Coad, Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford; United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre
Ben Collen, Centre for Biodiversity & Environment Research, University College London
Noëlle F. Kümpel, Conservation Programmes, Zoological Society of London
Thomas Breuer, Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society
John E. Fa, Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University; Center for International Forestry Research
David J. C. Gill, Fauna & Flora International
Fiona Maisels, Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society; African Forest Ecology Group, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling
Judith Schleicher, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge
Emma J. Stokes, Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society
Gemma Taylor, Centre for Biodiversity & Environment Research, University College London; Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London
Jörn P. W. Scharlemann, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex; United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre


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Unsustainable exploitation of wild animals is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity and to millions of people depending on wild meat for food and income. The international conservation and development community has committed to implementing plans for sustainable use of natural resources and has requested development of monitoring systems of bushmeat offtake and trade. Although offtake monitoring systems and indicators for marine species are more developed, information on harvesting terrestrial species is limited. Building on approaches developed to monitor exploitation of fisheries and population trends, we have proposed two novel indicators for harvested terrestrial species: the mean body mass indicator (MBMI) assessing whether hunters are relying increasingly on smaller species over time, as a measure of defaunation, by tracking body mass composition of harvested species within samples across various sites and dates; and the offtake pressure indicator (OPI) as a measure of harvesting pressure on groups of wild animals within a region by combining multiple time series of the number of harvested individuals across species. We applied these two indicators to recently compiled data for West and Central African mammals and birds. Our exploratory analyses show that the MBMI of harvested mammals decreased but that of birds rose between 1966/1975 and 2010. For both mammals and birds the OPI increased substantially during the observed time period. Given our results, time-series data and information collated from multiple sources are useful to investigate trends in body mass of hunted species and offtake volumes. In the absence of comprehensive monitoring systems, we suggest that the two indicators developed in our study are adequate proxies of wildlife offtake, which together with additional data can inform conservation policies and actions at regional and global scales.

Key words

Africa; bushmeat; exploitation; harvest; indicator

Copyright © 2015 by the author(s). Published here under license by The Resilience Alliance. This article is under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. You may share and adapt the work provided the original author and source are credited, you indicate whether any changes were made, and you include a link to the license.

Ecology and Society. ISSN: 1708-3087