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Ecosystems and Immune Systems: Hierarchical Response Provides Resilience against Invasions

Craig Allen, University of Nebraska


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Key words

biological invasions, complex systems, cross-scale, ecosystem management, immune systems, institutions, resilience, scale

Copyright © 2001 by the author(s). Published here under license by The Resilience Alliance. This article is under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. You may share and adapt the work provided the original author and source are credited, you indicate whether any changes were made, and you include a link to the license.

Ecology and Society. ISSN: 1708-3087