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Regime Shifts and Ecosystem Service Generation in Swedish Coastal Soft Bottom Habitats: When Resilience is Undesirable

Max Troell, Beijer Institute
Leif Pihl
Patrik Rönnbäck
Håkan Wennhage
Tore Söderqvist
Nils Kautsky


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Ecosystems can undergo regime shifts where they suddenly change from one state into another.  This can have important implications for formulation of management strategies, if system characteristics develop that are undesirable from a human perspective, and that have a high resistance to restoration efforts. This paper identifies some of the ecological and economic consequences of increased abundance of filamentous algae on shallow soft bottoms along the Swedish west coast. It is suggested that a successive increase in the sediment nutrient pool has undermined the resilience of these shallow systems. After the regime shift has occurred, self-generation properties evolve keeping the system locked in a high-density algae state. The structural and functional characteristics of the new system state differ significantly from the original one, resulting in less valuable ecosystem goods and services generated for society. In Sweden, loss of value results from the reduced capacity for mitigating further coastal eutrophication, reduced habitat quality for commercial fishery species, and the loss of aesthetic and recreational values.

Key words

alternate stable states; shallow soft bottoms; eutrophication; filamentous algal mats; resilience; ecosystem function; ecosystem goods and services.

Copyright © 2005 by the author(s). Published here under license by The Resilience Alliance. This article is under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. You may share and adapt the work provided the original author and source are credited, you indicate whether any changes were made, and you include a link to the license.

Ecology and Society. ISSN: 1708-3087