Lake Restoration in Terms of Ecological Resilience: a Numerical Study of Biomanipulations under Bistable Conditions
Takashi Amemiya, Yokohama National University
Takatoshi Enomoto, Yokohama National University
A. G. Rossberg, Yokohama National University
Noriko Takamura, National Institute for Environmental Studies
Kiminori Itoh, Yokohama National University
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An abstract version of the comprehensive aquatic simulation model (CASM) is found to exhibit bistability under intermediate loading of nutrient input, supporting the alternative-stable-states theory and field observations for shallow lakes. Our simulations of biomanipulations under the bistable conditions reveal that a reduction in the abundance of zooplanktivorous fish cannot switch the system from a turbid to a clear state. Rather, a direct reduction of phytoplankton and detritus was found to be most effective to make this switch in the present model. These results imply that multiple manipulations may be effective for practical restorations of lakes. We discuss the present results of biomanipulations in terms of ecological resilience in multivariable systems or natural systems.
alternative stable state; biomanipulation; bistable; comprehensive aquatic simulation model (CASM); resilience
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