The adaptive cycle and the ecosystem services: a social-ecological analysis of Chiloé Island, southern Chile
Daniela C. Pérez-Orellana, Laboratorio de Modelación Ecológica, Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile
Luisa E. Delgado, Laboratorio de Modelación Ecológica, Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile; Fundación CTF, Santiago, Chile
Victor H. Marin, Laboratorio de Modelación Ecológica, Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile
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We used the adaptive cycle as a heuristic to conceptualize the changes in ecosystem services between its phases (growth, conservation, collapse, and reorganization) for Chiloé Island (southern Chile), analyzed as a social-ecological system. We generated hypothetical relationships between services and phases based on literature articles, testing them with secondary databases for 1826–2016 and interviews with local actors. Results show that the island is currently either in a late conservation phase or already in a collapse phase. Only provisioning ecosystem services corresponded with the proposed phases’ relationships, while regulation-maintenance and cultural services showed long-term decreasing trends. We discuss cross-scale interactions and political centralism as the main factors preventing a local adaptive scheme that may start a reorganization phase.
adaptive cycle; Chiloé Island; collapse; ecosystem services; panarchy
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