Table 3. Extreme events: recent occurrences and impacts according to focus group discussions in each village, with 4 separate groups of men, young and mature, and women, young and mature (combined summary). Dates in parentheses are years of events according to local people.

Name of village Noticed extreme events Impacts on villagers Impacts on agriculture and natural resources
Papasena
1 & 2
Strong rains and floods (1998, 2009, 2010) Malaria, influenza, headaches Crops rot. Cassowary and wild pigs cannot find dry land.
Long dry season and heat waves (2009) Reduced drinking water Sweet potato, cassava, sago affected. Fishes in the lakes die.
Strong winds (not dated) No impact No impact
Kwerba Heat wave and drought (1992, 1997, 2007, 2010) Diarrhea Crocodiles move from dry tributaries. Tree kangaroos, cassowaries, wild pigs move near rivers. Fishes and prawns die.
Strong winds (2011) Houses blown away or roof tiles blown off No impact
Long period of rain and floods (1996, 2005) No impact Sago, betel, taro, banana, wild pigs, crocodiles, fish affected.
Burmeso Prolonged dry season and heat wave (1994) No impact Sago, annual plants, fishes, and wild pigs affected. Water in small streams gets warmer and dries up. Roads become dusty.
Reversed seasons, irregular rains and floods (2009) Influenza, malaria No impact
Metaweja Long rains and floods (1990, 2009 onward) Diarrhea, influenza, malaria, houses damaged Gardens damaged, dogs drowned.
Strong winds (2008, 2011) Houses damaged Coconuts, breadfruit, betel, cocoa blown over.
Long dry season (2009) No impact Fishes and prawns affected by water temperature.
Yoke Long dry season (1994, 2003, 2010) Crop failure, wells dry up or increase in salinity, no drinking water near the village Crops affected (betel, bananas, gnemo, and sago). Freshwater fish die (saline water).
Long rainy season (1997, 2001, 2011) Diseases, mosquito infestation, strong tides disturb fishing activities Crops fail, especially long cycle crops. Animals die in lowlands.
Strong winds (2000, 2006, 2010) No impact Coconut trees, betel palm, and pine trees blown over.