Table 1. Description of the surveyed villages. The column ‘area’ is for customary land.

Name Area (km²) Main ecosystems Status of the surrounding forest Main livelihoods Important vegetal resources: Important animal resources
Papasena
1 & 2
1700 Permanent and semipermanent swamp forests, hill and mountain forests Protected area Fishing, wild and planted sago exploitation, hunting, home garden cultivation (banana, red pandanus, betel). Sago, Fijian longan, and a lot of wild fruits Freshwater fish, crocodiles, wild pigs, birds of Paradise, cassowaries, cockatoos, hornbills, maleo
Kwerba 1100 Hill and mountain forests Protected area Wild and planted sago exploitation, hunting, home garden cultivation (banana, sweet potato, cassava, red pandanus, betel). Sago, Dipterocarps, Fijian longan, iron wood Crocodiles, freshwater fish, wild pigs, birds of Paradise, cassowaries, cockatoos, hornbills, maleo
Burmeso (future capital of the regency) 1500 Lowland and hill forests Production forest, degraded because of logging activities. Fishing, planted sago exploitation, hunting, home garden cultivation (cocoa, banana, sweet potato, red pandanus, betel). Sago, Iron wood, Fijian longan, Agathis Wild pigs, cassowaries, phalangers, birds of Paradise, freshwater fish.
Metaweja 300 Hill, mountain and riparian forests on steep slopes Protected area Wild and planted sago exploitation, hunting, home garden cultivation (banana, sweet potato, cassava, betel). Sago, Agathis, Fijian longan, iron wood. Wild pigs, cassowaries, birds of paradise, crowned pigeons.
Yoke 1400 Swamp forest, lakes, and mangrove Protected area Fishing, wild and planted sago exploitation, coconut planting, cocoa planting, hunting, home gardens with betel, cassava, banana. Sago, Watercress, Fijian longan, salty-leaf trees Salt and fresh water fish, molluscs, crustaceans, crocodiles, wild pigs, cassowaries.