Table 1. Numerous changes observed in the Sonoita Valley are categorized by the amount of control local managers and stakeholders have over these changes. As control of their causes and consequences decreases, nested management objectives and scenario planning become increasingly important. Changes marked with † represent changes that stakeholders have indicated should be considered components of any scenario planning exercise.

Controllability
Moderate Low None
Grazing intensity, rotation Border infrastructure Climate change†
Implementation of land agency policy Land agency resources/policy† Interannual climate variability
Recreation Housing development Population growth
Habitat fragmentation Local economic activity Regional/national economic activity
Invasive Species (bullfrogs) Invasive species (Lehmann's Lovegrass) National/international policy
Restoration Projects Alternative energy infrastructure
Water quality Water quantity
Sale of State Trust Land