Fig. 5. The trend over time in the involvement of local stakeholders in monitoring forest biomass (black triangle), biodiversity (shaded triangle), and livelihoods (white triangle) in forest carbon projects validated by the Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance from July 2009 to April 13, 2012 (n = 50 forest carbon schemes). The monitoring schemes with local stakeholder involvement belong to categories 2 to 5 in Fig. 4.