Fig. 4. Involvement of local stakeholders in monitoring forest biomass (black), biodiversity (shaded), and livelihoods (white) in forest carbon projects validated by the Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA) (up to April 13, 2012) (n = 50 forest carbon schemes). The degree of involvement of local stakeholders increases from left to right along the x-axis:
1. no involvement of local stakeholders in monitoring;
2. local stakeholders assist in, or conduct parts of, monitoring but professional foresters are actively involved in on-the-ground monitoring activities;
3. local stakeholders conduct all on-the-ground monitoring themselves but reporting and analysis are done by professional foresters;
4. local stakeholders conduct all on-the-ground monitoring and report the data to a central unit independently, and/or actively participate in the design and implementation phase of the monitoring scheme, and professional foresters conduct the analysis of the monitoring data;
5. local stakeholders participate in the design and implementation phase of the monitoring scheme, conduct all on-the-ground monitoring, and report and analyze all on-the-ground data themselves.