Fig. 4. Illustrative example of feedbacks of management and climate change on nonlinear tree mortality in the course of forest stand development. Clim(o) = climate today; Clim(+) = climate change; (Man(o) = today’s management; Man(A) = adapted management. The diagram refers to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) growing in a dry environment and is derived from a simulation study including thinning and grazing/shrub removal (Elkin and Bugmann 2010).