Fig. 3. Illustrative example of forest ecosystem goods and services (EGS) trade-offs and heterogeneity arising from alternative management under climate change. Simulated impacts on the protective function that forests provide against gravitational hazards (a, b) and forest diversity (c, d) are shown. Projected changes in each EGS are represented as deviations from forest state in 2010. Intensive thinning, which is intended to increase forest vitality, initially decreased forests protective ability at intermediate and low elevations (a), but improved forest diversity (c). Later in the century intensive thinning is projected to increase the protective function of forests by facilitating a transition to more drought tolerant species. In contrast, understory thinning initially increases the protective ability of forests (b), but decreases forest diversity (d). Source: adapted from Rigling et al. 2012.