Table 1. System components affected by scenarios, biological and economic interdependencies, and examples of activity changes that result in trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services (ES) in Alpine Land Use Allocation Model (ALUAM).

Common system components influenced by global change drivers Type of interdependency Example of activity change leading to trade-offs Example of activity change leading to synergies
Food ↔ Biodiversity
Land-use changes
Farm structural changes
Agricultural yields
Biological interdependencies at a parcel level; economic interdependencies at a regional level Substitution of extensively used grassland Changes in the spatial pattern of food production resulting in the intensification and extensification of land use at the same time but at different locations
Food ↔ Carbon sequestration
Farm structural changes
Land-use changes
Biological interdependencies at a parcel level and unit of livestock; economic interdependencies at a farm level Increase in livestock activities. Substitution of livestock with crop production activities
Food ↔ Protection from gravitational hazard
Land-use changes No interactions Substitution of farmland with forest Climate changes induced an increase in agricultural yields and forest growth
Biodiversity ↔ Carbon sequestration
Farm structural changes
Land-use changes
Economic interdependencies at a farm level Increase in the number of suckler cows (increasing the potential for extensively used grassland while also increasing carbon emissions) Reduction in livestock activities that reduced high-quality roughage demand
Biodiversity ↔ Protection from gravitational hazard
Land-use changes No interactions Increase in managed forest area on extensively used grassland No synergies possible in ALUAM
Carbon ↔ Protection from gravitational hazard
Forest development
Land-use changes
Biological interdependencies at a parcel level No trade-offs possible in ALUAM Increase in forest growth and forested area