Fig. 4. Trade-offs and synergies caused by an increase in biodiversity provision in 2010 (continuous lines) and in 2080 (dashed lines). Lines show the deviation of ecosystem services (ES) provision from economic optimum in 2010 and in 2080, if provision of biodiversity is increased over constraints. Biodiversity provision in 2010 equals 100%. Because biodiversity provision in the economic optimum is higher in 2080 than in 2010, deviation starts at 113%.