Fig. 3. Bayesian network set up for the valuation of five forest ecosystem services (ESS). The grey nodes are spatially explicit input variables; the light and dark blue nodes are variables used to quantify and value the ESS; the red decision box on the top defines the land-use scenarios; the green nodes are the expected utilities in terms of changes in ESS values. Values of the variables in the nodes tagged with a black blizzard are updated by expert knowledge.