Table 1. Linear mixed-effect model results of a) vegetation cover (%, square-root-transformed), b) species richness (modeled with Poisson distribution), and c) abundance (subplot frequency, square-root-transformed) of Deschampsia cespitosa as a function of time, treatment, and distance to transplanted vegetation turfs. Intercept refers to averages for the control treatment (C) in 2004. C = control/soil, CF = fertilizer, and CFS = fertilizer and seeds. Parameter estimates of random effects (plot nested in block nested in road) are not shown.

Variable estimate S.E. df t p
a) vegetation cover
Intercept 2.846 0.721 40 3.948 < 0.001
F vs. C 1.668 0.967 4 1.725 0.160
FS vs. C 3.691 0.697 4 3.818 < 0.001
2009 vs. 2004 3.042 0.432 40 7.048 < 0.001
F × 2009 −0.773 0.605 40 −1.278 0.205
FS × 2009
 
−2.097
 
0.610
 
40
 
−3.435
 
0.001
 
b) species richness
Intercept 1.206 0.201 40 5.988 < 0.001
F vs. C 0.379 0.223 4 1.695 0.090
FS vs. C −0.577 0.264 4 −2.184 0.029
2009 vs. 2004 0.980 0.156 40 6.271 < 0.001
log²(distance to transplant) −0.064 0.023 40 −2.830 0.005
F × 2009 −0.467 0.210 40 −2.228 0.026
FS × 2009
 
0.386
 
0.258
 
40
 
1.495
 
0.135
 
c) Deschampsia cespitosa abundance
Intercept 0.259 0.098 40 2.626 0.012
F vs. C 0.225 0.139 4 1.617 0.181
FS vs. C −0.242 0.139 4 −1.737 0.157
2009 vs. 2004 0.227 0.048 40 4.734 < 0.001
F × 2009 −0.034 0.067 40 −0.507 0.615
FS × 2009 −0.202 0.068 40 −2.975 0.005