Table 3. Linking strategy, opportunity context, and innovation phase.

Opportunity Context

Adaptive Cycle Phase

Opaque to Hazy

Conservation to Release

Hazy to Transparent

Release to Reorganization to Exploitation

Transparent to Opaque

Exploitation to Conservation

Corresponding Institutional Entrepreneur Strategies Introducing disturbances to stimulate the release of resources and lower the resilience of the dominant regime. Encouraging the proliferation of ideas and the recombination of resources in new and novel forms by, e.g., building networks, making room for emergent self organization. Leveraging economic, social, and ecological resources to support best innovative ideas, and integrating these into existing institutional context.
Convening activities such as sensemaking and sensegiving to support collective action; encouraging stakeholder participation. Allowing for a dominant design to emerge by encouraging the dropping off of unpromising ideas and linking those that offer a viable alternative platform. Continuing to support adaptive modifications and accumulate resources for small wins that build the resilience of the new institutional context.
Resource mobilization through sensemaking and convening. Resource mobilization through leveraging and brokering. Resource mobilization through accumulation.
Skills employed Cultural skills: visioning, marketing, framing, motivating, and defining; enabling collective attribution. Leveraging and Brokering skills: identifying windows of opportunity, engaging the emerging energy of the system, working through networks and partnerships, connecting ideas and resources. Political-Interactional skills: incentivizing, coalition forming, bargaining, mobilizing, and leveraging resources.
Agency identified as: Knowledge carriers and stewards, sense makers and interpreters, visionaries, and inspirers. Innovators and experimenters, brokers, facilitators. Followers and reinforcers, policy entrepreneurs, champions, advocates, organizers.