Table 2. Difference in practices between certified and noncertified farms: dichotomous variables (n = 86).

Certified Noncertified McNemar’s Chi-square test p - value
Median values
Socioeconomic characteristics
Number of farmers with land title 39 33 3.125 0.077
Number of farmers for whom coffee is the main activity 38 28 5.786 0.016*
Number of households that have other members contributing to household income 25 24 0.191 0.663
Number of households that have off-farm income
 
25 21 0.762 0.383
Access to markets, credit, and networks
Number of households that have access to information on prices 36 35 0.000 1
Number of households who sell to the cooperative 41 22 17.053 0.000*
Number of households who sell to traders 28 39 7.692 0.006
Number of household who had access to credit for renovation 30 20 3.375 0.066
Number of household who had access to credit for coffee expansion 12 15 0.191 0.663
Number of farmers who belong to organizations besides FNC
 
34 13 14.815 0.000*
Ecosystem conservation
Number of farmers who planted trees outside the coffee plots 32 20 6.722 0.010*
Number of farmers who protect water sources through fencing and reforestation
 
27 18 5.818 0.016*
Water conservation and water discharge
Number of farmers who use water-saving technologies for depulping 32 17 11.529 0.001*
Number of farmers who have grease traps in the kitchen 42 11 27.273 0.000*
Number of farmers who throw waste water to the field
 
2 10 4.900 0.027*
Integrated crop management
Number of farmers who collect ripe and over-ripe fruits 39 26 8.471 0.003*
Number of farmers who use biological control (Beauveria bassiana) 8 4 1.125 0.289
Number of farmers who use chlorpyrifos 10 14 0.750 0.387
Number of farmers who have adopted the rust-resistant varieties
 
42 29 9.6 0.002*
Soil management and conservation
Number of farmers who use organic fertilizer 37 28 3.765 0.052
Number of farmers who use synthetic fertilizer 37 41 1.500 0.221*
Number of farmers who use soil analysis 10 4 4.167 0.041*
Number of farmers who use glyphosate
 
17 16 0.563 0.453
Integrated waste management
Number of households that collect trash from the field 41 13 26.036 0.000*
Number of households that recycle 41 14 23.310 0.000*
Number of households that burn or bury trash
 
2 27 17.926 0.000*
Record keeping
Number of households that keep records
 
43 13 32.237 0.000*
Land intensification
Number of farmers who renovated the coffee plantation by new planting since certification/last 5 years 39 33 2.083 0.149
Number of farmers who renovated the coffee plantation by stumping since certification/last 5 years 26 14 4.654 0.031
* Significant at the 0.05 level.
n = 28 pairs: Not all farms have water sources in or adjacent to the property. The comparison includes only those for whom the question is relevant.
FNC = Spanish acronym for Colombian Coffee Growers Federation.