|Program||Central Science Problem and Regional Coverage||Primary Participants||Capacity Building||Policy Influence||Organizational Structure and Institutions|
|Global environmental change impacts on ecosystems, biodiversity, and socioeconomic systems; economic aspects of climate change mitigation and adaptation.North, Central, and South Americas.||Originally just 16 countries, now 19 countries of the Americas: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, United States, Venezuela. Multinational and multidisciplinary teams of scientists including physical, natural, and social scientists.||Made significant contributions in building research capacity and networks throughout the Americas. Strong support for South-South research collaboration.||Use of some outputs in various laws and climate-change strategies. Promotion of policy dialogues. Implementation of ‘training institutes’ to actively link researchers, practitioners, and other stakeholders to identify policy-relevant research needs and stimulate such research.||
IAI Directorate operates independently. Fairly bureaucratic
and hierarchical, with strong centralized structure and formal hierarchy.
Location between various governments and researchers created a buffer that
insulated research activities from political or economic influence.
Funding: National contributions.
|Linkages between land and atmosphere processes; relationship of biogenic, pyrogenic, and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and transports over the Southern African Development Community.||Australia, Belgium, Botswana, Canada, France, Germany, Mozambique, Namibia, Portugal, South Africa, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States, Zambia, Zimbabwe.||Improvement of communication between scientists across institutions and nations. Developed consortium of institutions of higher learning. Graduate-student researchers participated in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Copenhagen.||“Maputo Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in Southern Africa and its likely Transboundary Effects”||
Flat, decentralized, and relatively autonomous and driven by
specific research questions and needs.
Funding: Leveraged informal and formal support from U.S. NASA, international community, various southern African Nations
|LBA - Phase I: 1996-2005||
Sustainable land use in Amazonia; understanding the role of
the Amazon and deforestation in global environmental
Amazon Basin/transition Amazon to Cerrado (Brazil).
|Phase I: Brazilian research institutes and universities, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia, United States, United Kingdom, Germany. Mostly physical and natural scientists.||Law requires international research located in Brazil be led by Brazilian Co-Principal Investigators.||Limited policy-relevant outputs. As program matured researchers sought to inform research with more input from stakeholders.||
Evolved from flat, decentralized organization with
scientist-led, bottom-up initiative, becoming more bureaucratic as resources
were needed and leveraged.
Funding: NASA and Brazil
|LBA - Phase II: 2005-present||Phase II: Mainly Brazil. Primarily physical and natural scientists.|