Table 1. Skills and knowledge types included in transdisciplinary research (Max-Neef 2005).

Key questions Examples of skills needed Type of knowledge
What exists? Geology, physics, sociology, ecology, chemistry, economics Empirical
What are we capable of doing? Engineering, agriculture forestry, commerce, industry Pragmatic
What do we want to do? Planning, politics, law, design Normative/value-based
What ought we to be doing? Values, philosophy, ethics Normative/value-based