Fig. 6. Short-term historical simulations (1934 AD–2000 AD) and observed (2000 AD) landscape mosaics in the pasture Rionde during the twentieth century. The simulation outcome for year 2000 differs from the simulation outcome of the long-term historical simulations (Fig. 4) because we started the short-term simulation from a detailed interpretation of aerial photographs (Chételat et al. 2012). The fine-scale patterns persisted during the simulation of the twentieth century but were not simulated with the same precision since the Middle Ages. The four phytocoenosis types used for display are defined in Table 3; a legend is provided with Fig. 4.