Fig. 1. Structure of the WoodPaM model and main interactions (arrows) among submodels (in horizontal direction) and across spatial scales (in vertical direction). Successions in the herb, the shrub, and the tree submodels are driven by grazing impacts and climate. Grazing intensity at the grid cell level is determined by selective habitat use of cattle at the landscape level. Local successions in turn feed back to landscape level by the formation of spatio-temporal patterns of forage availability and landscape structures.