Table 3. Traditional ecological knowledge related to (A) biological (state) and (B) fishing (pressure) indicators selected for the Huave Lagoon System, Mexico. The seven biological indicators were grouped into bycatch and target species.

(A) Biological indicator Species Main feeding habits
Bycatch
Omnivore (OBC) 6 species
• Sea catfish (1. Arius platypogon, 2. A. seemanii, 3. Cathorops fuerthii);
• Anchovy (4. Anchoa curta, 5. A. ischana, 6. Anchovia macrolepidota)
Fish, polychaetae, algae, detritus, and microalgae
Carnivore (CBC) 24 species †:
• Grunt (1. Pomadasys panamensis);
• Short-snout mojarra (2. Diapterus peruvianus);
• Bonefish (3. Albula nemoptera, 4. A. vulpes);
• Flounder (5. Archirus mazatlanus, 6. A. zebrious);
• Golden jack (7. Gnathanodon speciosus),
• Leatherjack (8. Oligoplites saurus, 9. O. altus);
• Carruco grunt (10. Anisotremus pacifici);
• Milk fish (11. Chanos chanos);
• Croaker (12. Micropogonias altipinnis)
Fish, mollusks, and crustaceans
Mollusks (MBC) 2 species:
• Pacific crown conch (1. Melongena patula);
• Rocksnail (2. Hexaplex spp.)
Filter feeders and carnivores (other mollusk)
Sea turtle (ST) 2 species:
• Olive ridley turtle (1. Lepidochelys olivacea);
• Pacific green turtle (2. Chelonia agassizi)
Carnivores (crustaceans and mollusk) and omnivores
Target Species
Crustaceans (Cr) 5 species:
• Shrimps (1. Litopenaeus stylirostris, 2. L. vannamei);
• Crabs (3. Callinectes belicosus, 4. C. arcuatus, 5. C. toxotes)
Filters feeders and carnivores (others crustaceans)
Carnivore fishes (CF) 8 species:
• Yellowfin snook (1. Centropomus robalito);
• Snapper (2. Lutjanus argentiventris,3. L. Colorado,4. L. novemfasciatus);
• Brown sea catfish (5. Sciades dowii);
• Corvina (6. Cynoscion reticulatus,7. C. stolzmanni, 8. C. phoxocephalus)
Carnivores (fish)
Omnivore fishes (OF)
  
3 species:
• Mullet (1. Mugil cephalus, 2. M. curema);
• Yellow fin mojarra (3. Gerres cinereus)
  
Fish, polychaetae, algae, detritus, and microalgae
  
(B) Fishing indicator Fishing gear (fleet) Related resources
Shrimp net (SN) Cast nets and beach seines (on foot) Crustaceans, omnivore bycatch
Gillnets (GN) Set gillnets (fiberglass boats and wood canoes) Carnivore and omnivore fishes, sea turtles, carnivore bycatch
Encircling gillnet (EG) Purse seines (fiberglass boats) Carnivore fishes
† Less used carnivore bycatch: ray (13. Urotrygon chilensis, 14. Dasyatis longa), spadefish (15. Chaetodipterus zonatus, 16. Parapsettus panamensis), longspine grunt (17. Pomadasys macracanthus), flag-fin mojarra (18. Eucinostomus currani), bullseye (19. Sphoeroides annulatus), toadfish (20. Batrachoides pacifici), tripletail (21. Lobotes pacificus), shoulderspot needlefish (22. Strongylura scapularis), jumping halfbeak (23. Hemirhamphus saltator), and snake-eel (24. Ophichthus zophochir).