Fig. 2. Official Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) estimates of illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing between 1995 and 2009 (SC-CAMLR 2010), and corresponding, simplified governance features as explained in the text. (a) Two independent networks of government (squares), nongovernmental organization (NGO) (circles), and fishing industry (triangles) actors were collaborating independently in the mid-1990s. (b) One network evolved into ISOFISH (solid black symbols and lines), and the two independent networks became connected. After ISOFISH, (c) the industry network was formalized to the Coalition of Legal Toothfish Operators (COLTO) (solid black symbols and lines), which contributed to CCAMLR as an effective institution (solid black symbols and lines). (d) The secretariat (hexagon) coordinates information flow.