Table 1. General characteristics of the two study areas.

Study areas San Petrone massif Vico-Evisa region
Geographical coordinates 42°19’ N, 9°20’ E 42°12’ N, 8°46’ E
Surface area (ha) 43,875 60,409
Elevation (m) 80 to 1767
(40% of the study area is between 500 and 700 m)
0 to 2200
(40% of the study area is between 400 and 900 m)
Climate Mediterranean mountain
(warm and dry in the summer / cold and snowy in winter)
Mediterranean mountain
(warm and dry in the summer / cold and snowy in winter)
Mean annual
precipitation (mm)
942 ± 326
(according to the Piedicrocce meteorological station [1952–1976] and the La Porta meteorological station [1977–2008])
1271 ± 310
(according to the meteorological station at Evisa [1955–2008])
Mean annual
temperature (°C)
12.7 ± 1.3
(from 5.2 in January to 21.4 in August)
(according to the meteorological station [1980-2008])
12.5 ± 0.9
(from 5.7 in January to 22.4 in August)
(according to the meteorological station [1978-2008])
Substrate Schist associated with rocks of oceanic origin
(Durand-Delga 1978)
Granite covered by brown acid soils
(Roche and Roux 1976)
Landscape at the
highest altitude
Fagus sylvatica pure and sometimes mixed with Pinus laricio or Pinus pinaster in the western massif border (Gamisans 1999) Pinus laricio pure and sometimes mixed with Fagus sylvatica or Pinus pinaster in the lower fringe
(Gamisans 1999)
Landscape at the
lower altitude
Castanea sativa (introduced by humans; Pitte 1982, 1986) often mixed with Alnus cordata, Quercus ilex, moors, scrubland (e.g., Cistus sp., Pteridium sp., Laburnum sp.; Gamisans 1999) Scrublands (e.g., Cistus sp., Pistacia lentiscus, Myrtus communis) and grasslands with scattered Quercus ilex or Pinus pinaster. Castanea sativa fairly common in this area with moors and ferns (Pteridium sp.). Valleys and littoral-zone coasts with different crops (Gamisans 1999)