Table 1. Frequently mentioned aims and benefits with participation.

Pragmatic aims and benefits Normative aims and benefits
Cost efficiency
(Pretty 1995, Beierle 2002)
Fairness, equity, joint gains
(Beierle 2002, Rowe and Frewer 2005, Reed 2008)
Effectiveness in reaching specific targets
(Pretty 1995, Moore et al. 2001, Rowe and Frewer 2005, Senecah 2004)
Trust
(Buchy and Hoverman 2000, Senecah 2004, Reed 2008)
Higher quality outputs
(Senecah 2004, Reed 2008)
Improved relationships
(Pretty 1995, Buchy and Hoverman 2000, Senecah 2004, Reed 2008)
Stakeholder commitment; “ownership” of participatory processes and outcomes. Leads to higher quality and sustainability of outputs
(Pretty 1995, Buchy and Hoverman 2000, Moore et al. 2001, Reed 2008)
Democracy, influence, shared control
(Arnstein 1969, Pretty 1995, Buchy and Hoverman 2000, Rowe and Frewer 2005, Reed 2008)
Reed (2008) describes trust and improved relationships as pragmatic aims and benefits, as they might lead to stakeholder “ownership” of process and outcomes.