Fig. 1. An integrated framework for the complex stages and processes of learning and adopting new knowledge, skills, or frame of reference. The first step for anyone is becoming aware of the need to learn. This learning must proceed through practice and review from single- to double- to triple-loop learning (left-hand diagram). Changing levels of consciousness and reflection then lead to deeper learning that can change one’s frame of reference. The framework (right-hand diagram) presents a number of stages along the path to a mature understanding and reflection that continually challenges one’s path of selective exposure. Unlearning happens during, or as a consequence of, repeated incursions into reflective mode and back again (Modified from Taylor (2007, in Chapman 2012)).

Fig. 1