Table 2. More examples of distant interactions as telecouplings and actual/hypothetical relationships to sustainability in sending, receiving, and spillover systems. Only some attributes of telecouplings have been studied in the past and most attributes remain unknown. Feedbacks among different systems are not stated for the sake of simplicity.

Distant Interactions as Telecouplings Relationships to Sustainability in Sending, Receiving, and Spillover Systems
Trade of goods and products, e.g., food, timber, medicine, and minerals Resources, e.g., land, water, labor, are used for producing goods and products in the sending systems, and pollutants are also released during the production processes. Socioeconomic sustainability may increase while environmental sustainability may be compromised. In receiving systems, environmental quality may increase while socioeconomic benefits, e.g., job loss, may suffer. In spillover systems, sustainability may be affected in various ways depending on the relationships with sending and receiving systems.
Development investment, e.g., foreign direct investment Development investment may stimulate economic markets and resource use, e.g., for agricultural production, manufacturing facilities, and affect the environment in the receiving systems, may or may not slow down economic growth or resource development in the sending systems, and may influence spillover systems in various ways.
Transnational land tenure transfer Transnational land tenure transfer, e.g., transnational land deals or land grabbing, may negatively affect land governance and tenure as well as livelihood of people and environment in sending systems, enhance food and energy security and improve environment in receiving systems, and affect spillover systems in various ways.
Conservation investment Conservation investment, e.g., payments for ecosystem services, may conserve and restore environmental sustainability in receiving systems, may or may not compromise sustainability in the sending systems, and may influence spillover systems in various ways.
Technology transfer Technology generation may lead to socioeconomic and environmental consequences by consuming resources, e.g., land, water, energy, human resources, in sending systems. Technology implementation, e.g., new irrigation method, new vehicle battery, may affect environmental and socioeconomic sustainability in receiving and spillover systems.
Knowledge transfer Knowledge transfer, e.g., theories, techniques, innovations, governance, and management approaches, may affect resource use patterns in receiving and spillover systems and can increase both environmental and socioeconomic sustainability, e.g., by increasing efficiency. The sending systems may benefit or suffer from knowledge transfer in terms of finance and recognitions.
Human migration Human migrants may or may not abandon the sending systems, e.g., land and other resources, and occupy the receiving systems, e.g., for jobs. The resource consumption also shifts from sending to receiving systems, influencing sustainability in both systems. Effects on sustainability in spillover systems may vary depending on their relationships with sending and receiving systems.
Tourism Tourism ventures, e.g., scenic spots, restaurants, hotels, and associated infrastructure, e.g., roads, may be undertaken in receiving and spillover systems and may bolster socioeconomic sustainability, but potentially threaten environmental sustainability. Sending systems may also be affected, e.g., by loss of financial capital to the receiving and spillover systems, by reducing resource consumption and benefitting the environment while absent at home.
Waste transfer Transfer of waste, e.g., electronic waste and pollutants in the atmosphere and water, may reduce environmental and human health impacts in the sending systems, but may negatively affect sustainability in receiving and spillover systems by contaminating ecosystems, e.g., landfills, and affecting human health.
Species invasion Invasive species occupy receiving and spillover systems, where they affect sustainability by altering land use and land cover, aquatic ecosystems, water quantity and quality, ecosystem services, economic revenues, and biodiversity. Sending systems may be affected through feedbacks from receiving and spillover systems, e.g., Mirex, a derivative of cyclopentadienem was exported from the U.S. (receiving system) to Brazil (sending system) to control the Red Imported Fire Ant that originated from South America such as Brazil.
Animal migration Animal migrants, e.g., migratory birds, migratory ungulates, may use sending, receiving, and spillover systems during different times of the year. Migration affects ecosystem processes and environmental sustainability. Because migrants may spread diseases and predate on crops, they may also affect socioeconomic sustainability.
Water transfer Facilities for water transfer, e.g., channels and reservoirs, may be created in sending, receiving, and spillover systems, and may change land use, water use, biodiversity, and economic growth in all systems. Water transfer increases water availability but spreads pollutants and invasive species to receiving and spillover systems, and reduces water in sending systems.
Species dispersal Species dispersal may result in a reduction in densities of animal, plant, or microbe species in the sending systems, but an increase in densities in the receiving and spillover systems, e.g., dispersal corridors. Changes in species densities may improve or harm environmental and socioeconomic sustainability in each system depending on their specific characteristics.
Atmospheric circulation Circulation of atmosphere may affect environmental and socioeconomic sustainability in sending, receiving, and spillover systems. Examples include changes in water quantity and quality, e.g., through evaporation, land cover, e.g., soil erosion in sending systems and soil deposit in receiving systems, and ecosystem services, e.g., by transporting pollutants such as acid rain.