Table 2. Examples of studies that have used remote sensing to report on the minimum set of suggested indicators of forest degradation (from Table 1).

Indicator Study Location Methods Results/outputs
Growing stock Hollaus et al. 2009 Austria LiDAR and ground LiDAR canopy correlated to growing stock
Gallaun et al. 2010 Europe Satellite and ground MODIS model for aboveground biomass for Europe
Souza et al. 2005 Brazil Satellite and ground Landsat TM model comparing biomass of primary and degraded forests
Ecosystem state Strand et al. 2007 Summary report Satellite Multiple examples of Landsat, ASTER, SPOT HRV mapping of forest types at 15 to 250-m resolution
Souza et al. 2005 Brazil Satellite Classification and mapping of forest types using Landsat TM and ETM
Fragmentation Harper et al. 2007 Madagascar Satellite Landsat used to estimate decline in forest cover over time
Achard et al. 2002 Global Satellite Rate of fragmentation and loss of tropical humid forests for 1990–1997
Sánchez-Azofeifa et al. 2001 Costa Rica Satellite Fragmentation index derived showing change over time with Landsat TM
Alien invasive species Theron et al. 2004 South Africa Satellite and ground Mapping invasion by Acacia using Landsat ETM
Ferreira et al. 2005 Portugal Aerial photography Mapping invasion by Pinus pinaster
Tsai et al. 2007 Taiwan Satellite Mapping invasion by Leucaena leucocephala using hyperspectral imagery
Le Maître et al. 2002 South Africa Aerial photography Mapping invasion by Acacia
Everitt and Deloach 1990 USA, Mexico Aerial photography Mapping invasion by Tamarix chinensis
Pontius et al. 2008 USA Satellite Mapping area damaged by Agrilus planipennis using hyperspectral images
Fire Souza et al. 2005 Brazil Satellite Area mapping using Landsat TM and ETM
Dennis and Colfer 2006 Indonesia Satellite Area mapping using Landsat TM and ETM
Matricardi et al. 2010 Brazil Satellite Area mapping using Landsat
Soil erosion Prasannakumar et al. 2011 India Satellite and ground Quantifying erosion area
Maya et al. 2004 Mexico Satellite Quantifying erosion area using SPOT
Lu et al. 2004 Brazil Satellite Mapping of erosion and erosion potential using Landsat ETM
Manchanda et al. 2002 India Satellite Mapping of erosion and erosion potential
Stored carbon Baccini et al. 2012 Global tropical Satellite Carbon density mapping using satellite LiDAR
Ryan et al. 2012 Mozambique Satellite Aboveground biomass mapping using synthetic aperture radar (0.06 ha resolution)
Saatchi et al. 2011 Global tropical Satellite Carbon density mapping using satellite LiDAR
Goetz et al. 2009 Africa Satellite, LiDAR, ground Comparison among methods
DeFries et al. 2006 Global tropical Satellite Carbon density mapping using MODIS and Landsat