Table 1. A suggested framework of criteria and indicators for defining and delineating areas of degraded forest. A suggested minimum set of seven indicators is indicated by an asterisk (*).

Criterion Indicator(s) Variable(s) General methods
Production Growing stock* m³/ha of wood Satellite imagery, LiDAR, ground plots
Nontimber forest products Monetary value, number/yr Country reporting, questionnaires by management unit
Biodiversity Ecosystem state* Area of specific forest type Satellite imagery
Fragmentation* Area fragmented Satellite imagery, aerial photography
Species Presence/absence, population density, relative abundance, indicator of abundance Aerial or ground surveys
Unusual disturbances Invasive species* Population density, area affected Satellite imagery, aerial photography, ground surveys
Fire* Area affected Satellite imagery, aerial photography
Protective function Soil erosion* Area affected Satellite imagery, aerial photography
Water volume or flow Flow rate River or stream flow meters
Carbon storage Stored carbon* Biomass/ha Satellite imagery, ground plots
High wood-density trees species Tree density, relative abundance Ground plots, aerial photography