Table 1. Negotiating nature through the policy making process.

Stage Issue Range of Response
Agenda Setting Purpose of Restoration Biodiversity
Ecological functioning
Ethical
Economic
Cultural
Visual, e.g., landscape
Social, e.g., urban renewal
Leisure
Focus of Restoration Industrial/mining
Urban
Forests
Rivers
Agricultural land
Marine
Wetlands
Policy Formulation Spatial scale Pragmatic
Patch
Landscape
Ecosystem
Temporal scale Output oriented, short term
Long term
Historical
Ecological
Funding scale Indifferent to spatial or temporal scale
Adjusted for spatial and temporal scale
Funding sources Public
Private
Voluntary contributions
Mixed
Project Implementation Location
Technical delivery
Nature of participation
Imposed from ‘top down’
Negotiated from ‘bottom up’
Inclusive
Expert driven
Evaluation Criteria of success Technical
Historical / Fidelity
Anthropocentric
Ecological
Cost/benefit