Table 1. Commonalities in the three focus areas.

Themes Description
Diverse perspectives, values, and goals • Results from the need to include multiple stakeholders who possess their own interests, perceptions, goals and objectives and this often results in conflict and misunderstanding, which have to be accommodated to make progress.
• The stakeholders comprise private sector involvement, government, academia, professionals from different disciplines, and nongovernmental organizations.
• Leads to a major gap in understanding between the different stakeholders.
Power dynamics • Results from different levels in understanding because of educational differences.
• Instead of participating in the process, the less powerful stakeholders, but often the most affected communities, are only informed about what will be done without having any real understanding or say in the project, or sometimes only have the right to approve predetermined facts.
• The group leading the participatory approach has the power to decide who gets involved, and to which extent, thereby leaving the affected with only minor influence on their participation. It disempowers individuals further, resulting in an increase in power imbalances, leaving the concerns of the affected to be neglected.