Table 1. Design principles of robust, long-term, common pool resources during the unsustainable growth phase (1960–1972) and the sustainable phase (1994–2009) of the Peruvian anchovy fishery.

Design principle Unsustainable phase Sustainable phase
Clearly defined
User boundaries No No
Resource boundaries No Yes
Congruence
Between rules and local conditions Yes Yes
Proportional equivalence between costs and benefits Yes Yes
Collective choice arrangements No No
Monitoring
Rule enforcement No Yes
Resources Yes Yes
Graduated sanctions No Yes
Conflict resolution mechanisms
Among users Yes Yes
Among users and management authorities No Yes
Minimal recognition of rights to organize Yes Yes
Nested enterprises
Users Yes Yes
Management authorities No No
Only at national levels, i.e., if foreign multinational or only national companies are allowed to participate in the fishery. (For details see Arias Schreiber 2012.)
Since 2003.