governance issue or challenge
|Insights from the ACM literature|
|Accountability and legitimacy||
• Accountability is embedded in the ACM process and generated as an outcome as
responsibility is shared collectively in a transparent manner by those involved
and consequences are collectively accepted.
• Legitimacy in association with ACM is: enhanced by the involvement of diverse actors; assists with coordination of information and in undertaking new collaborations; and encourages compliance.
• Enabling policy environments can establish/enhance legitimacy and accountability.
|Actors and roles||
• Involving diverse actors in filling a variety of roles is important because of
sharing power and responsibility.
• Incentivizing participation is an important consideration.
• Leadership is a critical ingredient.
• Actors acting as intermediaries (bridging organizations, boundary organizations, brokering organizations) make key connections and facilitate group processes.
|Fit, interplay, and scale||
• Linkages and interactions between individuals and/or organizations are
• Interactions may be cross scale and/or cross level and may forge horizontal and/or vertical connections.
• Flexibility and dynamism of ACM permits tailoring the process to a specific place/situation and thereby enhances fit.
|Adaptiveness, flexibility, and learning||
• Adaptiveness, flexibility, and learning are essential characteristics for
processes to address uncertainty and change and can effectively be married with
• A rich collection of experiences with adaptiveness-, flexibility-, and learning-oriented processes in practice exist in the ACM literature from which lessons can be gleaned.
• The concept of learning is complicated. Specificity is required in its employment and attention is required in terms of its definition, expectations, underlying mechanisms, participants, and ethical issues.
|Evaluation and monitoring||
• Monitoring and evaluation is embedded in the ACM process because insights about
the system are continuously generated and adjustments are made based on
• The ACM literature offers frameworks and examples of assessments in practice for evaluation and monitoring.
• Rich experiences of undertaking collaborative monitoring and evaluation in ACM offer lessons in both developed and developing contexts.
• Multiple sources of knowledge and various types of knowledge need to be
combined. ACM offers a novel process by which knowledge integration and
coproduction may occur.
• Accessible information is critical to knowledge development processes and learning.
• Knowledge in the ACM literature makes connections to networks and systems, communication, and learning.